Some hexes do more than just add size to a kingdom; they also add resources and impact a kingdom’s Stability, Economy, Loyalty, and other elements.
Bridge: A bridge hex negates the cost increase of building a road that crosses a river.
Building: If you establish a city in a hex at a building location, you can incorporate the building into the city as a free building—the encounter indicates what type of building it counts as. See Building Types for more info.
Forests: A hex that is almost entirely trees within 5 hexes of a city reduces the Consumption of that city by 1. The Consumption of a city cannot go below 0 due to forest in close proximity. A forest hex cannot be used to reduce the Consumption of more than one city. If multiple cities are within 5 hexes, the rulers must choose which city receives the benefit. The presence of a camp in a forest hex reduces the city’s Consumption by an additional 1.
Lair: Caves can be used as defensive fallback points, storage, or even guard posts or prisons. A cave hex increases a kingdom’s Stability by 1.
Landmarks: Landmarks are sites of great pride, mystery, and wonder. They serve well to bolster a kingdom’s morale. A landmark hex increases a kingdom’s Loyalty by 1.
Rivers/Roads: A hex with a river or a road in it allows for easier travel. For every 4 river or road hexes your kingdom controls, the kingdom’s Economy increases by 1. For every 8 road hexes your kingdom controls, its Stability also increases by 1. (Rivers do not receive this Stability bonus.) Hexes with a river and a road count in both categories. Calculate the bonus to Economy separately for each type — i.e. 3 hexes of rivers and 3 hexes of roads do not receive any benefit.
Ruins: A ruin can be incorporated into a city as a building—doing so halves the cost of the building, as the ruin only needs to be repaired rather than having to be built from the ground up. The encounter indicates what type of building a repaired ruin counts as. See Building Types.
Towns: A town consists of an established settlement — claiming a town hex is an excellent way to add a fully functional city to a kingdom. In order to claim a town hex peacefully, the annexing kingdom must make a Stability check (DC = Command DC). Failure indicates that radicals and upstarts in the town increase your kingdom’s Unrest score by 2d4.
Resources: Resources include particularly valuable sources of lumber, metal, gems, food, or the like. A resource hex increases a kingdom’s Economy by 1.